Rantoul is a city in Franklin County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 184.
The first post office in Rantoul was established in 1862. It was named for Senator Robert Rantoul Jr., of Massachusetts.
Rantoul is located at 38°32′55″N 95°6′6″W (38.548508, -95.101778). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.15 square miles (0.39 km2), all of it land.
At the 2010 census there were 184 people in 74 households, including 50 families, in the city. The population density was 1,226.7 inhabitants per square mile (473.6/km2). There were 82 housing units at an average density of 546.7 per square mile (211.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.7% White, 0.5% African American, and 2.7% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7%.
Of the 74 households 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 32.4% were non-families. 27.0% of households were one person and 10.9% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02.