Rochester is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,139 at the 2010 census. The central village is delineated as the Rochester census-designated place.
Set on the edge of the Green Mountain National Forest, the town is a picturesque tourist destination.
Rochester was granted in 1780, chartered in 1781 to Dudley Chase, Asa Whitcomb and 63 others, then organized in 1788. It was first settled in the winter of 1781-1782 by David Currier and his family. Rochester's boundaries expanded through annexation of part of Pittsfield town in 1806, annexation of an additional area from Pittsfield town plus a part of Braintree town in 1824, a part of Hancock town in 1834, and finally an annexation of part of Goshen town in 1847.
The surface of the town is mountainous and broken, but the intervales along the White River provided good farmland. There were sites supplying water power for mills. By 1859, when the population was 1,493, industries included one gristmill, several sawmills, one tub factory, and a variety of mechanic shops. The White River Railroad from Bethel opened to Rochester in 1900, but was abandoned in 1933 during the Great Depression.