Roxbury is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States, created by Vermont charter on August 6, 1781. The population was 691 at the 2010 census, an increase of 20.0% over the 2000 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 41.8 square miles (108.3 km2), of which 41.8 square miles (108.2 km2) is land and 0.04 square mile (0.1 km2) (0.10%) is water.
Roxbury is the southernmost town of Washington County; it is bordered by Northfield (to the north), Warren (to the west), Granville (to the south and southwest), Braintree (to the southeast), and Brookfield (to the east). The town is located some 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Montpelier, the state capital. Roxbury is bisected by Vermont Route 12A, which runs through the town in a north-south direction. Roxbury includes the headwaters of the Dog River and White River; the former flows north into the Winooski River, while the latter flows south into Connecticut River. The geographic center of Vermont is located three miles east of Roxbury village.
Roxbury is heavily mountainous and forested, featuring some of the area's most rugged terrain. More than 85% of the land surface area of the town is forested, including 5,500 acres (2,200 ha) of state land and more than 7,000 acres (2,800 ha) of privately owned land that is enrolled in the state's Use Value Program.
More than twenty points within the town have an elevation of more than 2,000 feet (610 m); elevations in the town range from a low of 880 feet (270 m) (along the Third Branch of the White River) to a high of 3,086 feet (941 m) (at the peak of Rice Mountain). Rice Mountain lies in the Northfield range of the Green Mountains along the western boundary of the town.
Roxbury was granted by the Vermont General Assembly in 1781; its name is likely derived from Roxbury, Massachusetts, which later became part of Boston.