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Walpole is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 3,734 at the 2010 census.
The town's central settlement, where 605 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Walpole census-designated place (CDP), and is east of New Hampshire Route 12. The town also includes the villages of North Walpole and Drewsville.
The town was first granted in 1736 by Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher of Massachusetts as "Number 3", third in a line of Connecticut River fort towns. It was settled as early as 1736, and called "Great Falls" or "Lunenburg". Colonel Benjamin Bellows, for whom Bellows Falls, Vermont, is named, built a large fort here for defense against Indian attack. After the border between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed (with Number 3 on the New Hampshire side of the line), the town was regranted by Governor Benning Wentworth as "Bellowstown", after its founder. It was incorporated in 1756. The grant was renewed in 1761, when the town was renamed "Walpole", in honor of Sir Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, and first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
The first bridge across the Connecticut River, an engineering feat in its day, was built at Walpole in 1785, and is regarded as one of the most famous early spans in the United States. The town contains many architecturally significant old houses, including several associated with Colonel Bellows and members of his family.