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Calcutta is a census-designated place in southeastern Columbiana County, Ohio, United States. Historically a rural town, Calcutta has experienced much growth since the 1980s as businesses from nearby East Liverpool moved into larger shopping centers clustered around Ohio State Route 170. The population was 3,742 at the 2010 census.
Calcutta was laid out in 1810 as "West Union". It had also been called "Foulkstown", for William Foulks, who built the first brick house there, as well as "Nineveh", after the Biblical city of the same name. Finally, it was renamed "Calcutta", after the Indian city of Kolkata (formerly anglicised as Calcutta). A post office called Calcutta was established in 1838, and remained in operation until 1913.
Calcutta is located near the center of St. Clair Township at 40°40′56″N 80°34′13″W (40.682271, -80.570204) in southeastern Columbiana County. The Calcutta CDP extends southwest as far as the U.S. Route 30 expressway, and east and north as far Little Beaver Creek, touching the Pennsylvania state line where the creek crosses the border briefly. The CDP is bordered by Longs Run, a tributary of Little Beaver Creek, on the northwest. To the southwest of Calcutta, across US 30, is the CDP of Glenmoor.