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Dover () is the capital and second-largest city in the U.S. state of Delaware. It is also the county seat of Kent County, and the principal city of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kent County and is part of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area. It is located on the St. Jones River in the Delaware River coastal plain. It was named by William Penn of Dover in Kent, England. As of 2010, the city had a population of 36,047.
First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters (dwfr in Middle Welsh). The same element is present in the towns French (Douvres) and Modern Welsh (Dofr) forms.
Dover was founded as the court town for newly established Kent County in 1683 by William Penn, the proprietor of the territory generally known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." Later, in 1717, the city was officially laid out by a special commission of the Delaware General Assembly. The capital of the state of Delaware was moved here from New Castle in 1777 because of its central location and relative safety from British raiders on the Delaware River. Because of an act passed in October 1779, the assembly elected to meet at any place in the state they saw fit, meeting successively in Wilmington, Lewes, Dover, New Castle, and Lewes again, until it finally settled down permanently in Dover in October 1781. The city's central square, known as The Green, was the location of many rallies, troop reviews, and other patriotic events. To this day, The Green remains the heart of Dover's historic district and is the location of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Kent County Courthouse.
Dover was most famously the home of Caesar Rodney, the popular wartime leader of Delaware during the American Revolution. He is known to have been buried outside Dover, but the precise location of his grave is unknown. A cenotaph in his honor is erected in the cemetery of the Christ Episcopal Church near The Green in Dover.
Dover and Kent County were deeply divided over the issue of slavery, and the city was a "stop" on the Underground Railroad because of its proximity to slave-holding Maryland and free Pennsylvania and New Jersey. It was also home to a large Quaker community that encouraged a sustained emancipation effort in the early 19th century. There were very few slaves in the area, but the institution was supported, if not practiced, by a small majority, who saw to its continuation.
The Bradford-Loockerman House, Building 1301, Dover Air Force Base, John Bullen House, Carey Farm Site, Christ Church, Delaware State Museum Buildings, John Dickinson House, Dover Green Historic District, Eden Hill, Delaware Governor's Mansion, Greenwold, Hughes-Willis Site, Loockerman Hall, Macomb Farm, Mifflin-Marim Agricultural Complex, Old Statehouse, Palmer Home, Town Point, Tyn Head Court, and Victorian Dover Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Dover is located at 39°09′29″N 75°31′28″W (39.1581680, −75.5243682).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles (59 km2), of which 22.4 square miles (58 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2), or 1.32%, is water.
Dover has a warm temperate climate or humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa). Summers are hot and humid, with 23 days per year reaching or surpassing 90 °F (32 °C). Brief, but heavy summer thunderstorms are common. Winters are moderated by the Delaware Bay and the partial shielding of the Appalachians, though there are normally 8−9 days when the daily high remains below freezing and 15 nights with lows below 20 °F (−7 °C). Snow is typically light and sporadic, averaging only 15.7 inches (40 cm) per season, and does not usually remain on the ground for long. Spring and autumn provide transitions of reasonable length and are similar, though spring is more wet. The monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F (1.8 °C) in January to 77.7 °F (25.4 °C) in July. The annual total precipitation of around 46 inches (1,170 mm) is spread rather evenly year-round. Dover averages 2300 hours of sunshine annually.
In 2010, Dover had a population of 36,047 people. The racial makeup of the city was 48.3% White, 42.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, and 4.1% from two or more races. 6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 32,135 people, 12,340 households, and 7,502 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,435.0 people per square mile (554.1/km²). There were 13,195 housing units at an average density of 589.2 per square mile (227.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 54.94% White, 37.22% African American, 0.45% Native American, 3.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, and 2.62% from two or more races. 4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 12,340 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the city of Dover the age distribution of the population shows 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,669, and the median income for a family was $48,338. Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $26,061 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,445. About 11.5% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.6% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.
Dover is governed via the council-manager system with an elected mayor, currently Robin R. Christiansen since 2014. The council consists of nine members, eight of whom are elected from districts with each district having two members. One member of the council is elected at large.
There have been four full-time Mayors of Dover to date: James "Hutch" Hutchison from 1994 to 2004; Stephen Speed from 2004 to 2007; Carleton Carey from 2007 to 2014; Robin R. Christiansen – presently .
The mayor is elected directly by the city voters for a two-year term. Municipal elections are held every year, with half the city council members up for re-election each year.
Federally, Dover is part of Delaware's At-large congressional district, represented by Democrat Lisa Blunt Rochester, elected in 2016.
The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Tom Carper, elected in 2000. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Chris Coons, elected in 2010. The governor of Delaware is Democrat John Carney, elected in 2016.
Delaware's largest employer is also Dover's – the state government. A large portion, but not all, of the state's bureaucracy is located in and around Dover. However, like some other American states, Delaware's capital is not its largest city. Consequently, Wilmington, in the northern part of the state and its largest city, has many state offices and employees one would normally expect to find in the state capital, including the headquarters of the Office of the Attorney General, especially as many large American corporations maintain nominal offices in that city to register their Delaware corporation.
Dover is one of the fast-growing areas in the state of Delaware, due in large part to the relatively low cost of living. As a consequence, the Kent County government is a major employer in the area as well. Apart from the state and county governments, Dover's significant employers include Dover Air Force Base, located within the southeast corporate limits of the city. The base houses two airlift wings as well as the U.S. military's only mortuary in the continental United States, which accepts and processes the remains of soldiers killed in battle. In addition, Kraft Foods and Procter & Gamble have manufacturing facilities in Dover. The Kraft Foods plant in Dover has been the plant that manufactures Jell-O since 1964 when it relocated from Bloomfield, New York. ILC Dover, in nearby Frederica, is the producer of fabrics for military and aerospace uses, along with being the primary contractor for production of the Apollo and Skylab spacesuits, as well as the spacesuit assembly for the Space Shuttle's Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).
Two weekends a year, NASCAR races are held at Dover International Speedway, attracting about 65,000 spectators. Attendance to the races is much lower than in the 1990s and 2000s, when 140,000 spectators came to Dover International Speedway and led to traffic snarls throughout the city and on US 13 approaching Dover. The races bring in increased patronage for local businesses and hotels and motels sell out weeks in advance. Many race fans camp in RVs and tents adjacent to the track. These races, and in recent years adjacent slot machine gambling at Dover Downs Hotel & Casino, contribute millions of dollars to Dover's economy.
Firefly Music Festival is held in The Woodlands of Dover International Speedway every summer since 2012.
Dover is the only state capital in the United States with a volunteer fire department.
The main north–south highway through Dover is U.S. Route 13, which runs through the main commercial strip of Dover on the multi-lane, divided Dupont Highway. An alternate route of U.S. Route 13, U.S. Route 13 Alternate, passes through downtown Dover on Governors Avenue. The limited-access Delaware Route 1 toll road, which provides the main route to Wilmington and the Delaware Beaches, passes to the east of Dover. It ends near the Dover Air Force Base and DE 1 continues south on Bay Road. U.S. Route 113 formerly ran along Bay Road from Milford to US 13 near the State Capitol Complex, however it was decommissioned north of Milford in 2004 to avoid the concurrency with DE 1 between the Dover Air Force Base and Milford. Delaware Route 8 is the main east–west route through Dover, passing through downtown on Division Street and West Dover on Forrest Avenue. It continues west toward Maryland to provide access to the Chesapeake Bay Bridge. Delaware Route 15 passes north-south through the western part of Dover along Hazlettville Road, West North Street, Saulsbury Road, and McKee Road. Dover is one of only four state capitals not served by an Interstate highway. Pierre, South Dakota; Jefferson City, Missouri; and Juneau, Alaska are the other three state capitals with this distinction.
Dover Air Force Base is located within the southeast corporate limits of Dover. Airports near Dover with commercial air service include the Wicomico Regional Airport in Salisbury, Maryland, the Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport in Baltimore, Maryland, and the Philadelphia International Airport in Philadelphia. Other general aviation airports near Dover include Chandelle Estates Airport to the northeast of the city, Delaware Airpark near Cheswold, and Jenkins Airport near Wyoming.
Dover is located on a former Pennsylvania Railroad line, later operated by Penn Central, Conrail, and Norfolk Southern and now operated by the Delmarva Central Railroad. At one time Dover had a daily Amtrak passenger service; however, the line now is just used for local freight. The closest passenger rail station is the Amtrak station in Wilmington.
DART First State provides local bus service throughout Dover and Kent County, radiating from the Dover Transit Center in downtown. They also provide inter-county service to Wilmington on the Route 301, Newark on the Route 302, Georgetown on the Route 303, and Lewes on the Route 307 and seasonal service to Lewes and Rehoboth Beach on the Route 305 "Beach Connection".
Greyhound Lines are provided as inter-city bus transportation along a route running between the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City and Norfolk, Virginia, with a bus stop at the 7-Eleven store along U.S. Route 13 in the northern part of Dover.
The city of Dover provides various utility services to businesses and residents. The Department of Public Works provides trash collection, recycling, water, and sewer service to the city. Republic Services provides recycling collection under contract to the city. The City of Dover Electric Department provides electricity to the city. The city's electric department is a member of the Delaware Municipal Electric Corporation, a wholesale electric utility that represents municipal electric departments in the state of Delaware. The City of Dover Electric Department generates some of its electricity from the McKee Run Generating Station, which consists of three natural gas-powered units that are used on a limited basis. The city also generates electricity from solar power at the Dover SUN Park, a 10 MW solar power farm on 103 acres at the Garrison Oak technology park that is owned by SunPower. The remainder of the city's electricity is purchased. Natural gas service in Dover is provided by Chesapeake Utilities.
Bayhealth Medical Center operates the Bayhealth Kent General hospital in Dover. The hospital offers various inpatient services including a birthing room and cardiovascular and cancer services. Bayhealth Kent General also offers numerous outpatient services, patient and family support services, community outreach, and imaging services. The hospital has a 24-hour emergency room with a Level III trauma center.
Dover is home to Delaware State University, a land-grant university and Delaware's only historically black university, and Wesley College. Campus Community School, a public charter school, is located on the Wesley College grounds. It is also home to the Terry Campus of the Delaware Technical Community College and that college's administrative offices. Dover also has satellite locations of the University of Delaware and Wilmington University.
Three public high schools serve Dover residents. Caesar Rodney High School, in the Caesar Rodney School District (located just outside the city in Camden); Dover High School, in the Capital School District; and Polytech High School, in the Polytech School District (located in Woodside).
The Dover Air Force Base Middle School is located on the premises of the Dover Air Force Base. This school is unusual in that it is run not by the Department of Defense, but by the Caesar Rodney School District.
The former Dover Opera House, built in 1904, was renovated and converted to the Schwartz Center for the Arts, which hosted performances by the Dover Symphony Orchestra, ballet, and classic films. The Schwartz Center for the Arts closed on June 30, 2017 due to financial issues.
Dover is also home to The Children's Theatre, Inc. of Dover and Kent County, a non-profit organization.
The Delaware State Library, the Delaware State Museum, and the Delaware State Archives are in downtown Dover and are open to the public for research and browsing.
In Dover's historical district is the Sewell C. Biggs Museum of American Art, featuring collections from the Colonial days to the present.
An Amish community resides to the west of Dover, consisting of 9 church districts and between 1,200 and 1,500 people. The Amish first settled in Kent County in 1915. The area is home to several Amish businesses selling items such as Amish food, furniture, quilts, and handmade crafts. Every September, the Amish County Bike Tour, one of the largest cycling events in Delaware, takes place in the area. In recent years, increasing development has led to the decline in the number of Amish living in the community.
Two newspapers are headquartered in Dover, the Dover Post, printed weekly and online, and the daily Delaware State News.
Kent County is within the Philadelphia television market, with the local Comcast system carrying most channels from that city, alongside Salisbury stations WBOC-TV (CBS), WMDT (ABC) and WCPB (PBS), plus low-powered Rehoboth Beach NBC affiliate WRDE-LD. WBOC-TV maintains a bureau in Dover, and WHYY-TV maintains a studio and broadcasting facility in Dover. WMDT operates a local repeater serving Dover, WEVD-LP channel 27, while WHYY programming is seen locally on WDPB-TV channel 64 from Seaford (part of the Salisbury television market).
WDDE, Delaware's first NPR station, launched in August 2012. It broadcasts on 91.1 FM. Delaware was the last state in the nation to have an NPR station located within its borders.
Dover International Speedway is home to two NASCAR race weekends, one in the late spring and one in the early fall. The spring race weekend features the Camping World Truck Series on Friday, the Xfinity Series on Saturday, and the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series on Sunday while the fall race weekend features the K&N Pro Series East on Friday, the Xfinity Series on Saturday, and the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series on Sunday. Located with Dover International Speedway is Dover Downs, a harness horse racing track, hotel and casino. The harness track is located within the NASCAR track.
The two colleges in town are both active in sports. The Wesley College Wolverines are a perennial powerhouse in NCAA Division III football, where they began play in the New Jersey Athletic Conference in 2015, while other sports compete in the Capital Athletic Conference. The Delaware State Hornets compete in NCAA Division I, with football competing at the FCS level of Division I, as a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference made up of other historically black colleges and universities.
For one week during the middle of July every year, Dover also hosts the Big League (Little League 16-18) Eastern Regionals, attracting teams from all of New England and the Mid-Atlantic.
There are several golf courses located near Dover. They include the Maple Dale Country Club in Dover, Wild Quail Country Club near Camden, Jonathan's Landing Golf Course near Magnolia, Dover Center Par 3 and Driving Range in Dover, and the Eagle Creek Golf Course (Must have military I.D.) on the Dover Air Force Base.
Historically, Dover hosted a farm team of the Philadelphia Phillies in the Eastern Shore Baseball League. It also served as an affiliate of the minor-league Baltimore Orioles. The teams were variously known as the Senators, Dobbins, Orioles, and Phillies.
In 2008 Sporting News ranked Dover 215th in its list of the 400 Best Sports Cities based on the year October 2007 – October 2008, a year which saw high attendance for the NASCAR races and Delaware State's football team making its first FCS tournament appearance.
Combat Zone Wrestling held its yearly Tournament of Death in Dover twice.
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