Houlton is a town in Aroostook County, Maine, on the Canada–US border, located at 46.1256°N 67.8398°W / 46.1256; -67.8398. As of the 2010 census, the town's population was 6,123. It is perhaps best known for being at the northern terminus of Interstate 95 and as the birthplace of Samantha Smith, a goodwill ambassador as a child during the Cold War. The town hosts the annual Houlton Agricultural Fair.
Houlton is the county seat of Aroostook County, and as such its nickname is the "Shire Town". The Houlton High School sports teams are named "The Shiretowners". The Meduxnekeag River flows through the heart of the town, and the border with the Canadian province of New Brunswick is 3 mi (4.8 km) east of the town's center. Houlton was the home of Ricker College, which closed in 1978.
The primary settlement and center of the town is designated as a CDP with the same name. The headquarters of the federally recognized Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians is based here.
The area was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, these were the Algonquian-speaking Maliseet people.