Palmyra is a census-designated place (CDP) in and the county seat of Fluvanna County, Virginia, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 104. Palmyra lies on the eastern bank of the Rivanna River along U.S. Route 15. The ZIP code for Palmyra and surrounding rural land is 22963.
The Fluvanna County Courthouse Historic District, Glen Burnie, Pleasant Grove, and Seay's Chapel Methodist Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Before being named "Palmyra", the area was owned by the Timberlake family, and Reverend Walker Timberlake started a business there in 1814 called "Palmyra Mills".
The village of Palmyra was founded and became the county seat of Fluvanna County in 1828, and its historic courthouse was built in 1830-1831. By 1835, there were fourteen homes, a church, three factories, and various other businesses, though only two families owned all the land other than the public buildings. In the mid-19th century, it was a stop along the stagecoach route between Richmond and Staunton. The Virginia Air Line Railway, which operated from 1908 to 1975, ran through Palmyra. The train traveled from Strathmore on the James River, to Cohasset, to Carysbrook, to Palmyra, to Troy, and on to Gordonsville or Charlottesville.
A fire in 1930 destroyed many of the buildings on Main Street.