Rose Hill is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,931.
For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre.
In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized, then in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.S. state. In 1855, Butler County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Rose Hill.
The first post office in Rose Hill was established in 1874.
Rose Hill is located at 37°33′30″N 97°8′6″W (37.5583517, -97.1350405). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.20 square miles (5.70 km2), all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,931 people, 1,288 households, and 1,045 families living in the city.