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Barnesville is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. It was incorporated in 1888. The population was 172 at the 2010 census.
The Maryland General Assembly chartered the town of Barnesville in 1811 and named it in honor of its earliest settler, Williams Barnes. In its early years, the village developed as a regional center for industry and commerce, with two taverns, a blacksmith shop, and a resident physician, a Dr. Lisle. In the 1830s, Barnesville Academy operated on the Hays Farm under the leadership of Irish immigrant Thomas Carr Lannan. Jesuit Ministers from Frederick first held mass in Barnesville and led in the creation of St. Mary's Church in 1807. The church yard contains several graves from immigrant workers who died of cholera while building the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal.