Medford is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 24,142 at the 2010 census.
Medford is a community in the southwest part of the Town of Brookhaven. It is served by the Patchogue-Medford School District, except for extreme southeastern Medford, which is served by the South Country Central School District, and extreme northeastern Medford, which is served by the Longwood Central School District. Some neighborhoods in Yaphank have Medford's zip code (11763).
The Long Island Rail Road established the Medford Station in 1843 in a flat wilderness in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. The station connected to the Patchogue Stage Road between Patchogue and Port Jefferson, and a post office was established.
In 1850 the LIRR auctioned the land around the station. The O.L. Schwenke Land & Investment Co. bought 4 square miles (10 km2) and then subdivided the land into 25-by-100-foot (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots which sold for $10 to $75. The land remained poor for farming. According to legend, in a marketing attempt a mock factory with a phony roof was built near the tracks, and when a train neared, tar paper was burned to give the impression that a booming industry existed in the community.
In 1907 the LIRR established the Medford Prosperity Farm (officially called Experimental Station #2) on 80 acres (320,000 m2) to show that crops could be raised in the Pine Barrens.