Sherwood is a city in Washington County, Oregon, United States. Located in the southeast corner of the county, it is a residential community in the Tualatin Valley, southwest of Portland. As of the 2010 census, Sherwood had a population of 18,194 residents. The city's population for 2019 was estimated to be 19,879 by the U.S. Census. Sherwood was first incorporated in 1893 as a town. Originally named Smockville after its founder, James Christopher Smock, the town was given its current name by local businessman Robert Alexander in 1891, who likely named it after his hometown of Sherwood, Michigan.
What is now the Sherwood area was originally inhabited by the Atfalati band of the Kalapuya nation. Native Americans were relocated to reservations after the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850–55 gave American citizens exclusive ownership of these lands. The relocation process took place under the guidance of a series of federal employees, most notably Superintendent of Indian Affairs Joel Palmer, who was removed from office after being criticized for being too lenient with Indian policy.
The California Gold Rush of 1849 caused a dramatic shift in the area's economy. Oregon City, Oregon is along a stretch of the Willamette River that had always been attractive to trade since prehistoric times, when trading activity was dominated by the Chinookan tribe.